Start by looking at existing light sources to decide what can be accomplished without even flipping a switch: daylight. It's the most energy-efficient system because it's one that's not even turned on.
Once you've exhausted that possibility, the next step is moving toward electric lighting. Today's energy-conscious designers opt for multiple lower-brightness sources of light over a single high-wattage source to reduce glare and to make the space feel more pleasant.
Read our Light Bulb Buying Guide for more tips to help you find the right fit for your space.
Occupancy sensors, timers, dimmer switches, and, for retrofits or new-home construction, sensors that automatically dim and raise the lights according to the amount of daylight all help save your wallet and the planet.